Unlike China, or Iran, there is no coherent ideology behind the Russian foreign policy.
What Russia has been doing for the last 17 years, has Putin’s fingerprints all over it. He is known as an accomplished tactician, with a visceral distaste for ideologies.
The logic of Putin is best described by the word disruption. He reads into the strategic intent of his opponents—for the time being, the US and NATO—and takes measures to disrupt their actions. The objective is to enforce a New Yalta deal on the US and NATO.
Using the instruments of disruptive power, Putin and his aides often call it “asymmetrical response”. The idea is to annoy and weaken the enemy to the point when he gives up and decides it makes more sense to sit down and negotiate than to continue the confrontation.
You can see it in the stuff produced by RT and Sputnik, in the heightened activity of the radical left and far right in Europe and USA, in the consequent Russian obstruction of Western global agenda, the hacker attacks. This is all ways to compensate for our economic weakness and lack of international allies.
You may want to read more about disruptive power if you google the name of researcher Frances Fox Piven.
Alexander Novikov suggested once a very illustrative explanation of disruptive power. He compared it with the use of U-boats by Germans in the Atlantic during WWII. No wars have been won by U-boats, but they hugely facilitated strategic wins, as for example the US victory in the grand Pacific battle of WW2.